Lower School math instruction focuses on how and why math works so that students develop number sense, problem-solving skills, and a facility with numbers that will enable them to use math in real-life situations. We follow the scope and sequence of Math in Focus, which is the U.S. edition of the math curriculum used in Singapore, a country at the forefront of mathematics teaching and learning for the last 15 years. The Math in Focus curriculum focuses on fostering deep understanding in mathematics by exploring concepts in depth, emphasizing problem solving, and using a concrete-pictorial-abstract approach to promote mastery. Unlike traditional math instruction, which tends to focus on skill-drilling and memorization of a wide variety of math facts and functions each year, Singapore Math presents a limited number of concepts at each grade level and encourages mastery through a process that moves from concrete manipulation to pictorial representation to abstract reasoning. The goal is to help students understand math at a deeper level than that which is needed to perform well on a traditional math test. To that end, Singapore Math focuses on problem-solving and, over time, prepares students to tackle increasingly difficult topics, such as fractions and ratios, in preparation for the study of algebra and geometry in Middle School.